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Glucoamylase Production by Aspergillus awamori KT-11 In Solid-State Fermentation Using Cassava Peel as Substrate

Urip Perwitasari, Nuryati, Ruth Melliawati, and Yopi (2017). Glucoamylase Production by Aspergillus awamori KT-11 In Solid-State Fermentation Using Cassava Peel as Substrate. Annales Bogorienses, Vol. 21 (1): 21-28. ISSN 0517-8452

Glucoamylase Production by Aspergillus awamori KT-11 In Solid-State Fermentation Using Cassava Peel as Substrate

Cassava has long been known as one of the main staple food in Indonesia. Whereas the cassava peel contains starch of approximately 72%, it is still underrated as a carbohydrate source for fermentation. The utilization of cassava peel as a substrate in solid state fermentation potentially replaces rice as a carbon source leading to more cost-effective production. This study aims at producing glucoamylase by means of solid state fermentation using Aspergillus awamori KT-11 and cassava peel as substrate. The study demonstrated that medium composition and drying technique affected the production of glucoamylase. The highest glucoamylase activities were identified when cassava peel and mineral media was used in fermentation, compared to only cassava peel; the combination of cassava peel, mineral, and rice bran; rice media or a mixture of rice, mineral and rice bran. Freeze-dried glucoamylase, furthermore, exhibited higher specific activity in contrast to the oven-dried one, with 452 U/mL and 365 U/mL, respectively. In conclusion, cassava peel plus mineral is a better substrate for glucosamine production by A. awamori KT-11 in solid state fermentation. Besides, powdered glucoamylase had been demonstrated to be capable of hydrolyzing starch-based biomass.

Keywords: glucoamylase, cassava peel, A. awamori KT-11, solid state fermentation

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Endophytic Fungi Associated With Turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) Can Inhibit Histamine-Forming Bacteria in Fish

Eris Septiana, Nampiah Sukarno, Sukarno, Partomuan Simanjuntak (2017). Endophytic Fungi Associated With Turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) Can Inhibit Histamine-Forming Bacteria in Fish. HAYATI Journal of Biosciences, (2017) 24: 46-52. ISSN: 1978-3019. DOI: 10.1016/j.hjb.2017.05.004

Turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) is a medicinal plant that is commonly used as spice and preservative. Many types of endophytic fungi have been reported as being associated with medicinal plants and able to synthesize secondary metabolites. In this study, endophytic fungi were isolated from all plant parts of turmeric plants. Identification of the endophytic fungi was done using morphological characteristics and sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of ribosomal DNA. The dual culture method was used for screening antibacterial activity of the endophytic fungi against Morganella morganii, a common histamine-producing bacteria. The disc diffusion method was used to test the ability of water fractions of selected endophytic fungi to inhibit M. morganii growth. Two-dimensional thin layer chromatography was used to determine the fungal extract inhibition activity on histamine formation. In total, 11 endophytic fungi were successfully isolated and identified as Arthrobotrys foliicola, Cochliobolus kusanoi, Daldinia eschscholzii, Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium proliferatum, Fusarium solani, Fusarium verticillioides, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, and Phaeosphaeria ammophilae. Five isolates showed inhibition activity against M. morganii in the dual culture tests. Based on the disc diffusion assay, A. foliicola and F. verticillioides inhibited the growth of M. morganii as a histamine-producing bacteria, and inhibiting histamine formation in fish. The best effects in inhibiting growth of the histamine-producing bacteria and histamine formation inhibition in fish were produced with F. verticillioides water fraction at 0 °C incubation.

Keywords: antimicrobial activity, medicinal plant, Morganella morganii, phylogenetic analysis, ribosomal DNA

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Manipulasi Sel Somatik dan Transgenesis Tanaman Talas

MANIPULASI SEL SOMATIK DAN TRANSGENESIS TANAMAN TALAS

Andri Fadillah Martin, N. Sri Hartati, Aida Wulansari, Siti Noorohmah, Pramesti Dwi Aryaningrum dan Witjaksono

Seminar Nasional Hasil Penelitian Unggulan Bidang Pangan Nabati. Bogor, 25 September 2014. 75-90 hal.

Kelangkaan pangan telah MANIPULASI SEL SOMATIK DAN TRANSGENESIS TANAMAN TALASmenjadi ancaman setiap negara, semenjak meningkatnya pertumbuhan penduduk dunia, sehingga dunia akan menghadapi ancaman karena ketidakmampuan mengimbangi pertumbuhan penduduk dengan penyediaan pangan yang memadai. Dengan demikian, diperlukan suatu usaha untuk mengurangi ketergantungan pangan pokok dari komoditi beras. Salah satu alternatif yang perlu dikembangkan adalah pengembangan tanaman umbi-umbian yang kini mulai ditinggalkan oleh masyarakat. Komoditas umbi dari sumber daya lokal yang potensial untuk dikembangkan adalah talas (Colocasia esculenta L. Schott.). Talas merupakan tanaman herba yang digunakan sebagai makanan pokok di daerah Pasifik. Di Indonesia, talas memiliki keanekaragaman genetik yang besar sehingga potensi perakitan galur unggul talas ini terbuka lebar baik secara konvensional maupun bioteknologi. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah mengembangkan protokol untuk mendapatkan varietas unggul melalui poliploidisasi, fusi protoplas dan transgenesis tanaman talas. Penelitian manipulasi sel somatik talas terdiri dari induksi mutasi dengan sinar gamma, induksi poliploid dengan oryzalin dan fusi protoplas. Percobaan fusi protoplas dimulai dari induksi kalus meremah yang dilanjutkan dengan pengembangan protokol isolasi dan fusi protoplas. Telah diperoleh tunas-tunas hasil radiasi sinar Gamma yang dapat digunakan untuk seleksi lebih lanjut. Induksi poliploidisasi talas berhasil dilakukan dengan didapatkannya kultur talas poliploid. Protokol fusi protoplas dikembangkan melalui fusi antara protoplas dua jenis talas berbeda yang diisolasi dari daun dan kalus. Penelitian transgenesis talas meliputi pengembangan metoda transformasi genetik menggunakan faktor transkripsi 35S-OSHOX4 dan analisis molekuler planlet hasil transformasi. Hasil yang diperoleh dari penelitian rekayasa genetika talas untuk ketahanan terhadap kekeringan adalah protokol transfromasi genetik gen 35S-OSHOX4 mengggunakan Agrobacterium tumefaciens dan planlet putatif transgenik. Plantlet-plantlet in vitro talas yang diperoleh dari penelitian manipulasi somatik maupun transformasi genetik diharapkan dapat diuji lebih lanjut untuk pengembangan galur baru talas unggul.

Kata kunci: Talas, induksi mutasi, induksi poliploid, transformasi genetik, Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

Sumber: http://perpus.biotek.lipi.go.id/index.php?p=fstream&fid=3155&bid=15601

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