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Isolation, Identification, and Evaluation of Antimicrobial Activity of Active Compound Produced by Marine Actinomycetes isolate A32

Isolation, identification, and evaluation of antimicrobial activity of active compound produced by marine actinomycetes isolate A32 has been conducted. Production of active compound using isolate A32 was conducted by glucose, yeast, peptone medium. The fermentation was carried out at 30ºC for 5 days. The broth of supernatant was extracted using ethyl acetate. Purification of active compound used column chromatography and eluted stepwise with the chloroform and methanol solvent. Antimicrobial activity was monitored by the agar diffusion, and microbial test used as followed Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC25923, Bacillus subtilis ATCC 66923, and Candida albican BIOMCC00122. Results of isolation and purification of active compound produced by isolate A32 showed that this compound has a molecular weight of 503.1 g/mol with molecular formula C26H37N3O7. Analysis of spectrum using 1HNMR and COSY, this compound was suspected as Madumycin II. The antibacterial activity assay showed that this active compound was able to inhibit to the growth of Staphylococcus aureus ATCC25923 and Candida albican BIOMCC00122.

 

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Roferon-A: A Biologic Product of Human Interferon Alpha 2a

Human interferon alpha 2a (hIFNα2a) is a cytokine regulating immune system that has been used in hepatitis and cancer treatments. It has wide biological potency covering antiviral, antiproliferative and immunomodulative activities. This mini review discusses Roferon-A as a prominent commercial product of recombinant hIFNα2a which is produced in bacterial system, Escherichia coli, as therapeutic protein for several diseases, such as chronic viral Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C, melanoma, hairy cell leukemia and renal cell carcinoma. The discussion focuses on the development process with regard to its manufacturing, preclinical and clinical studies, as well as therapeutic efficacy. In addition, we also discuss biosimilar development of hIFNα2a and its potential future developments in the context of enhancing pharmacokinetic profiles

 

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Response of Increasing NaCl Concentrations on Growth and Proline Content of Tacca leontopetaloides cultured in vitro

Tacca leontopetaloides (L.) Kuntze which belongs to family Taccaceae is one of tuberous plant useful as an alternative food. This plant contains starch (amylose and amylopectin) similar to that of potato. In addition, this plant also contains secondary metabolites potential for diarrhea, dysentery, and anticancer. In Indonesia, this plant grows at coastal areas i.e. in Sukabumi, Yogyakarta, Garut and Karimunjawa, so this plant was suspected to have high tolerance on salinity stress. The purpose of this research was to investigate the effect of increase in NaCl concentrations on growth and its proline content of T. leontopetaloides grown in vitro. In vitro shoot tips were cultured on MS medium (Murashige & Skoog, 1962) supplemented with NaCl at concentrations of 10; 25; 50; 75; 100; 150 and 200 mM, respectively. After six weeks in culture, shoots height, shoots number, leaves number, fresh weight, as well as their proline content were recorded. The results showed that fresh weight of shoots grown on MS medium supplemented with NaCl from 10 to 100 mM was hogher compared to those of the control treatment. Fresh weight decreased when shoots were cultured on MS medium supplemented with NaCl at more than 100 mM. Height of shoots, number of shoots, and number of leaves decreased along with the increase of NaCl concentrations. The best medium for growth was MS medium supplemented with 25 mM NaCl. In this medium proline content was 15.7 umol/g FW. Proline concentrations increased along with the increase of NaCl concentrations. LD50 value was 146 mM NaCl. In conclusion that on MS medium without addition of plant growth regulators, T. leontopetaloides shoot culture was sensitve to the increase of NaCl concentration.

 

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In Vitro Induction Of Tetraploid Pummelo ’Nambangan’ (Citrus maxima (Burm.) Merr.) By Colchicine Treatment Using Germinated Seed, Shoot Tip And Cotyledonary Node As Explants

Tetraploid citrus are important for interploidal hybridization to create triploid seedless citrus.  Colchicine is the most commonly used as antimitotic agent to induce polyploid plants.  Tetraploid induction by colchicine in Pummelo ‘Nambangan’ was conducted in vitro using different types of explants.  The aim of this research was to induce tetraploid pummelo ‘Nambangan’ by colchicine treatment using germinated seed, shoot tip and cotyledonary node as explants.  Tetraploid shoot induction was conducted by soaking germinated seeds, shoot tips and cotyledonary nodes in 0.1% colchicine for 1, 3 and 5 h.  Regenerant shoots were grown on MS medium and their growth was observed after four weeks in culture.  Ploidy level was determined using flow cytometry analysis.  Stomata density, length and width of stomatal guard cell were also recorded. The results showed that shoot elongation was inhibited by colchicine treatment.  Soaking of shoot tip explants in 0.1% colchicine for 1 h resulted in 66.66% of putative tetraploid shoots.  Compared to diploid shoots, tetraploids had lower stomata density but bigger in guard cell size.

 

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In-Silico Cloning and Analysis of Divalent Subunit OMP31-SODc Proteins As A Prophylaxis Vaccine Against Brucella melitensis Infection

The urgency to develop a new protein based subunit vaccine candidate against Brucella was provoked by its frequent infection to human and lives stock. Since Brucella melitensis is found as the most species isolated from human, thus the outer membrane of the Brucella melitensis become prominent subcellular location for searching promising antigen to be developed as vaccine target due to its interaction with cell host. Among other proteins suggested by Vaxign program, the OMP31 is found as a promising candidate. Moreover, analysis on other subcellular location leads our interest to SODc protein, which is expected to support the OMP31 in triggering immune response. The OMP31-SODc divalent vaccine candidate was analysed in-silico to predict its stable three-dimensional structure, cloning process and expectation on the ease during expression, purification and the protein vaccine delivery to develop expected immune response.

 

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