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Marka Mikrosatelit sebagai Alternatif Uji BUSS dalam Perlindungan Varietas Tanamam Padii

tree-gen-padiThis study was conducted at the Indonesian Center for Agricultural Biotechnology and Genetic Resources Research and Development to seek the feasibility of using SSR markers for DUS testing in rice variety. Released variety Fatmawati together with seven other reference varieties were analyzed using genetic analyzer for their variability, ten SSR markers were used. Hundred and twenty five alleles located on chromosomes 1, 2, 5, 6, 7, 10, and 11 were detected in eight varieties studied, where the number of alleles ranging from 6 (BPC) to 33 (Fatmawati), with the predominant markers such as RM11 on Fatmawati, Maros, Barumun, Gilirang, and Memberamo varieties, RM237 on Cisadane and BP630 varieties, and RM133 and RM287 markers on BPC variety. The genetic distance-based results in the unrooted neighbor-joining tree revealed that the eight varieties as well as their populations clustered separately. Genetic variability within each variety indicated that these varieties were still in higher degree of heterogeneity. This demonstrated the power of SSR marker in differentiating varieties as well as population within variety, which, therefore, SSR marker could be recommended in plant variety protection.(Sugiono Moeljopawiro)


Microencapsulation Of Fucoxanthin By Water-In-Oil-In-Water (W/O/W) Double Emulsion Solvent Evaporation Method: A Review

fucoxanthinFucoxanthin is a major xanthophyll present in brown seaweeds such as Sargassum binderi, S. duplicatum, Turbinaria turbinata, Padina australis, Undaria pinnatifida and Hijkia fusiformis. This carotenoid has a unique structure including oxygenic functional group such as, two hydroxy, keto, epoxy (5,6-monoepoxide), and an allenic bond. Fucoxanthin has some anticancer activities such as, exhibits inhibitory property on colon cancer cells and human hepatic carcinoma HepG2 cell line. This xanthophyll also induces apoptosis of human leukemia cancer HL-60 cells, human prostate cancer PC-3 cell, human lung cancer H1299 cell line etc. Unfortunately, the poor solubility of this carotenoid in water hinders it to be a drug candidate. Fucoxanthin is also a pigment that is sensitive to temperature and light. One of the possible ways to circumvent the problem with light and temperature is by microencapsulating it. Microencapsulation (ME) in biodegradable polymers, e.g. poly(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) is a promising approach to protect any potential drug from rapid degradation. Solvent evaporation method is the most popular technique of preparing PLGA microsphere (MS) and this technique has been extensively studied in recent years for the preparation of MS. In the water-in-oil-in-water (w/o/w) double emulsion solvent evaporation method, stability of the primary emulsion (PE) is a critical factor. When the PE is unstable, encapsulation efficiency (EE) is low. Stability of PE can be enhanced by including emulsifying agent or stabilizers such as polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). The presence of a stabilizer/ emulsifier plays a significant role in influencing particle size (PS), external morphology of microsphere and colloidal stability. (Dedi Noviendri)


Optimization Of Enzymatic Hydrolysis Of Fish Protein Hydrolysate (FPH) Processing From Waste Of Catfish Fillet Production

enzymeAn experiment to determine the optimum condition of fish protein hydrolysate (FPH) processing has been conducted to produce FPH with high protein content. The raw material was catfish (Pangasius sp.) waste from catfish fillet production. Fat content, sensory (color, odor and flavor), total number of bacteria (TPC) and E. coli were analyzed as supporting parameters. The experiment was initiated with preliminary experiment to determine the optimum temperature (temp variation: 50oC, 55oC, 60oC, and 65oC) and concentration of commercial papain enzyme (conc variation: 4%, 6%, and 8%) in FPH hydrolysis, while the main experiment was to determine the optimum time of hydrolysis (time variation: 6, 12, 24, 36, and 48 hours), and pH (pH variation: 5 and 7). Results showed that the optimum temperature in preliminary experiment was 60oC and optimum concentration of enzyme was 4%, whereas the main experiment resulted the optimum hydrolysis time of 48 hours and optimum pH of 5. This condition produced FPH with protein content of 1.21% wet weight basis (wb) or 39.03% dry weight basis (db) and fat content of 0.16% wb (5.16% db). The sensory analysis of the end product revealed that from max score of 5, the scores of color, odor and flavor of the FPH were 3.50, 2.17 and 2.29, respectively. The product had TPC of 1.1x 107CFU/g with no E. coli infection. (Bagus Sediadi Bandol Utomo, Theresia Dwi Suryanigrum, Herbert R Harianto)


Desalination Of Chitoologosaccaharides Using Gel Filtration And Ultrafiltration

maldi-tofChitooligosaccharide (COS) , which is a derivative product from chitosan, has recently been used as a functional food because it has antimicrobial, antifungal, and antitumor properties. The salt content in chitooligosaccharide is one of the main problems in application as functional food or pharmaceutical medicine. The aim of this study was to remove salt from COS with two desalting techniques and determine the variation of COSs in the product. The desalting technique used were dialysis with 10kD Molecular Weight Cut Off (MWCO) and gel filtration chromatography HiPrep 26/10 desalting with G-25 Superfine Sephadex as stationary phase in the column. In order to detect the presence of COS, Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) method was used, followed by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI–TOF–MS) to detect low concentration of COS. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of salt presence were identified using silver nitrate and Volhard method respectively. Ash content was measured using gravimetric method. Results showed those dialysis and gel filtration chromatographies were successfully remove the most of the salt from COS with efficiency of desalting up to 100%. However, the best desalting technique was gel filtration chromatography HiPrep 26/10 which has more complete COS with various degrees of polymerization present in the result. (Pujoyuwono Martosuyono, Asri Pratitis, Alexander Prasetya and Elisabeth Kartika Prabawati )



optbacPrevious study of bacteriocin production on laboratory scale (100 mL) that used MRS broth medium produced unstable activity of bacteriocin. Therefore, this study aims to determine the optimum growth conditions and media for production of bacteriocin. Bacteria used in this research was a lactic acid bacteria (LAB) Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis CN1.10a isolated from rusip, a traditional Bangkanese fermented fish product.The bacteria was first cultivated for subsequent use of bacteriocins production on intermediate scale (2L). Followed by the optimization of temperature, pH and medium for the bacteriocin production, determination of cell growth curve, bacteriocin production curve, bacteriocin activity on that scale, and also stability of bacteriocin during storage.The results showed that the optimum temperature and pH for the growth of producer cell were 28°C and pH 6. The greatest activity of bacteriocin was produced on CM medium (1% sucrose, 0,45% peptone, 1% yeast extract, 2,84% KH2PO4, 0,2% NaCl and 0,02% MgSO4.7H20) in addition of sucrose as carbohydrate source. Based on the growth curve performedon CM medium with KH2PO4, the L. Lactis ssp lactis CN1.10a was relatively stable up to 48 hours. Bacteriocin produced by the cell was 8000 AU/mlat24th hour.Bacteriocin was relatively stable when stored at -20°C for 1month with a relative activity of 69,4%. (Ninoek Indriati, Arifah Kusmarwati and Irma Hermana )


Immunostimulatory Effect Of Fatty Acid From Star Fish (Acanthaster Planci) On Lymphocyte Proliferation In-Vitro

lymphocyteThe aims of this study were to investigate lymphocyte proliferation activity and to identify chemical constituents of active fractions of star fish Acanthaster planci. A. planci was collected from Ternate Island, North Moluccas, extracted with distilled methanol and water, partitioned with gradient chloroform-hexane-methanol-water and fractionated in column chromatography using silica gel and hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol. The active compound had been purified by Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) and identified by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). The lymphocyte proliferation activity was measured based on % Stimulation Index (SI) from sample absorbency and control absorbency. The result showed that the 3 fractions of hexane fraction exhibited lymphocyte proliferation activity. Fraction 1 was able to increase lymphocyte proliferation at 48 hours and 72 hours by 55% (80 µl/ml) and 88% (160 µl/ml) increase, and fraction 2 had 77% (160 µl/ml) and 86% (640 µl/ml) increase. Meanwhile, fraction 3 had 75% (640 µl/ml) and 89% (640 µl/ml) increase. Metabolite analysis of active fraction using GC-MS yielded a number of chemical constituents that was dominated by fatty acid. The study concluded that star fish A. planci from Ternate Island has a potential source of immunostimulator. (M. Janib Achmad1, Alim Isnansetyo, Noer Kasanah, Ustadi, and Kamiso)


Tinea Imbrikata

hiperpigmentasiTinea imbrikata adalah dermatofitosis kronis yang disebabkan oleh Trychophyton concentricum dengan gambaran morfologis khas, berupa papulo-skuamosa yang tersusun dalam lingkaran-lingkaran konsentris, sehingga tampak seperti atap genting. Dilaporkan satu kasus tinea imbrikata pada wanita usia 47 tahun. Pada pemeriksaan fisik, didapatkan lesi kulit dengan distribusi generalisata hampir di seluruh bagian tubuh, kecuali wajah, telapak tangan dan kaki, berupa skuama halus yang tersusun konsentris. Pada pemeriksaan mikroskopis dengan pewarnaan KOH 10% didapatkan hifa panjang, spora, dan epitel. (Reyshiani Johan)

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