Source of Resistance in Soybean Germplasms to the Common Cutworm Spodoptera litura F. The important aspect of development of resistant plant to insect pest is source of resistance. Study the resistance of 14 advance soybean breeding lines to common cutworm Spodoptera litura F. was conducted at the Laboratory of Crop Protection, Indonesian Legumes and Tuber Crops Research Institute (ILETRI) Malang in February-September, 2006. Leaf damage and larval development on resistant genotypes was recorded to measure the level of resistance. It was found that the usceptibility of soybeans to the common cutworm significantly varied among the breeding lines.
Morphological Characteristic Diversity of Wild Rice Species (Oryza spp.) Germplasm. Wild rice spesies is relative of cultivated rice and has many differences of its characteristic. Morphological characteristic variation on crop can be used as working assets in breeding program. Morphological characterisation was conducted in three planting seasons in 2004 until 2005 at Indonesian Center for Agriculcural Biotechnology Research and Development green house consisted of 88 accessions of 18 wild rice spesies which belonged to 4 groups of Oryza spp. (Oryza sativa, O.officinalis, O. meyeriana, and O. ridleyi). The characteristic observed were include 12 quantitative characters and 5 qualitative characters with 23 subcharacters. The wide of quantitative orphological character variances were found in plant high, tiller number, days of flower, total number grain/ panicle, awning length and stalk diameter, while the narrow character variances were found in panicle length, 1.000 grains weigth, grain shape, total internode and internode length. The qualitative characters variance were found in grains, stalk, ligule and leaf morphology, while panicle morphology of wild rice species was dominated by open panicle type, erect panicle, secondary branching were absent and well exserted.
A field experiment was conducted to assess genotypic variability of tolerance and to identify tolerant genotypes to low phosphorus (P) among rice germplasm on lowland (paddy) rice field with low available and potential P using strip plot design with three replications. P fertilization (with and without added P) was assigned as horizontal factor and 120 rice plant genotypes as vertical factor. Data on plant height, tiller number, and shoot dryweight were collected. Low P tolerance was judged by relative value i.e. observation value at the plot without P treatment devided by the value at the plot with P treatment. The judgement was determined based on IRRI standard. Shoot P uptake of five tolerant and five sensitive genotypes on no added P treatment was also observed. The results showed that the germplasm exhibited phenotypic and genotypic variability of low P tolerance. The highest genotypic variability of tolerance was shown by the value based on relative tillering number (28.7%), followed by that of relative shoot dryweight (22,6%) and relative plant height (7,6%). The highest broadsense heritability of tolerance was shown by the value based on relative tiller number (24.1%), followed by that of relative plant height (16.6%) and relative shoot dry weight (15.0%) Fourteen genotypes were identified as highly tolerant based on relative tiller number and 28 genotypes based on relative shoot dryweight. The tolerance of genotype was attained by higher P uptake and higher internal use efficiency. (Abd. Aziz Syarif, Didy Sopandie, M.A. Chozin, K. Idris, dan Suwarno)
This study was conducted at the Indonesian Center for Agricultural Biotechnology and Genetic Resources Research and Development to seek the feasibility of using SSR markers for DUS testing in rice variety. Released variety Fatmawati together with seven other reference varieties were analyzed using genetic analyzer for their variability, ten SSR markers were used. Hundred and twenty five alleles located on chromosomes 1, 2, 5, 6, 7, 10, and 11 were detected in eight varieties studied, where the number of alleles ranging from 6 (BPC) to 33 (Fatmawati), with the predominant markers such as RM11 on Fatmawati, Maros, Barumun, Gilirang, and Memberamo varieties, RM237 on Cisadane and BP630 varieties, and RM133 and RM287 markers on BPC variety. The genetic distance-based results in the unrooted neighbor-joining tree revealed that the eight varieties as well as their populations clustered separately. Genetic variability within each variety indicated that these varieties were still in higher degree of heterogeneity. This demonstrated the power of SSR marker in differentiating varieties as well as population within variety, which, therefore, SSR marker could be recommended in plant variety protection.(Sugiono Moeljopawiro)
Fucoxanthin is a major xanthophyll present in brown seaweeds such as Sargassum binderi, S. duplicatum, Turbinaria turbinata, Padina australis, Undaria pinnatifida and Hijkia fusiformis. This carotenoid has a unique structure including oxygenic functional group such as, two hydroxy, keto, epoxy (5,6-monoepoxide), and an allenic bond. Fucoxanthin has some anticancer activities such as, exhibits inhibitory property on colon cancer cells and human hepatic carcinoma HepG2 cell line. This xanthophyll also induces apoptosis of human leukemia cancer HL-60 cells, human prostate cancer PC-3 cell, human lung cancer H1299 cell line etc. Unfortunately, the poor solubility of this carotenoid in water hinders it to be a drug candidate. Fucoxanthin is also a pigment that is sensitive to temperature and light. One of the possible ways to circumvent the problem with light and temperature is by microencapsulating it. Microencapsulation (ME) in biodegradable polymers, e.g. poly(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) is a promising approach to protect any potential drug from rapid degradation. Solvent evaporation method is the most popular technique of preparing PLGA microsphere (MS) and this technique has been extensively studied in recent years for the preparation of MS. In the water-in-oil-in-water (w/o/w) double emulsion solvent evaporation method, stability of the primary emulsion (PE) is a critical factor. When the PE is unstable, encapsulation efficiency (EE) is low. Stability of PE can be enhanced by including emulsifying agent or stabilizers such as polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). The presence of a stabilizer/ emulsifier plays a significant role in influencing particle size (PS), external morphology of microsphere and colloidal stability. (Dedi Noviendri)
An experiment to determine the optimum condition of fish protein hydrolysate (FPH) processing has been conducted to produce FPH with high protein content. The raw material was catfish (Pangasius sp.) waste from catfish fillet production. Fat content, sensory (color, odor and flavor), total number of bacteria (TPC) and E. coli were analyzed as supporting parameters. The experiment was initiated with preliminary experiment to determine the optimum temperature (temp variation: 50oC, 55oC, 60oC, and 65oC) and concentration of commercial papain enzyme (conc variation: 4%, 6%, and 8%) in FPH hydrolysis, while the main experiment was to determine the optimum time of hydrolysis (time variation: 6, 12, 24, 36, and 48 hours), and pH (pH variation: 5 and 7). Results showed that the optimum temperature in preliminary experiment was 60oC and optimum concentration of enzyme was 4%, whereas the main experiment resulted the optimum hydrolysis time of 48 hours and optimum pH of 5. This condition produced FPH with protein content of 1.21% wet weight basis (wb) or 39.03% dry weight basis (db) and fat content of 0.16% wb (5.16% db). The sensory analysis of the end product revealed that from max score of 5, the scores of color, odor and flavor of the FPH were 3.50, 2.17 and 2.29, respectively. The product had TPC of 1.1x 107CFU/g with no E. coli infection. (Bagus Sediadi Bandol Utomo, Theresia Dwi Suryanigrum, Herbert R Harianto)
Chitooligosaccharide (COS) , which is a derivative product from chitosan, has recently been used as a functional food because it has antimicrobial, antifungal, and antitumor properties. The salt content in chitooligosaccharide is one of the main problems in application as functional food or pharmaceutical medicine. The aim of this study was to remove salt from COS with two desalting techniques and determine the variation of COSs in the product. The desalting technique used were dialysis with 10kD Molecular Weight Cut Off (MWCO) and gel filtration chromatography HiPrep 26/10 desalting with G-25 Superfine Sephadex as stationary phase in the column. In order to detect the presence of COS, Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) method was used, followed by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI–TOF–MS) to detect low concentration of COS. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of salt presence were identified using silver nitrate and Volhard method respectively. Ash content was measured using gravimetric method. Results showed those dialysis and gel filtration chromatographies were successfully remove the most of the salt from COS with efficiency of desalting up to 100%. However, the best desalting technique was gel filtration chromatography HiPrep 26/10 which has more complete COS with various degrees of polymerization present in the result. (Pujoyuwono Martosuyono, Asri Pratitis, Alexander Prasetya and Elisabeth Kartika Prabawati )